Wild Water Buffalo

The wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee) also called Asian buffalo and Asiatic buffalo is a large bovine native to Southeast Asia. The species is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1986 as the remaining population totals less than 4,000, with an estimate of fewer than 2,500 mature individuals.

Wild water buffalo are larger and heavier than domestic buffalo, and weigh up to 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Their head-to-body-length is 240 to 300 cm (94 to 120 in) with a 60 to 100 cm (24 to 39 in) long tail and a shoulder height of 150 to 190 cm (59 to 75 in). Both sexes carry horns that are heavy at the base and widely spreading up to 2 m (79 in) along the outer edges, exceeding in size the horns of any other living bovid. Their skin color is ash gray to black. The moderately long, coarse and sparse hair is directed forward from the haunches to the long and narrow head. There is a tuft on the forehead, and the ears are comparatively small. The tip of the tail is bushy, the hooves are large and splayed

Wild water buffalos are both diurnal and nocturnal. Adult females and their young form stable clans of as many as 30 individuals that have home ranges of 170 to 1,000 ha (0.66 to 3.9 sq mi) including areas for resting, grazing, wallowing and drinking. Clans are led by old cows, even when bulls accompany the group. Several clans form a herd of 30 to 500 animals that gather at resting areas. Adult males form bachelor groups of up to 10 individuals, with older males often solitary, and spend the dry season apart from the female clans. They are seasonal breeders in most of their range, typically in October and November. However, some populations breed year round. Dominant males mate with the females of a clan who subsequently drive them off. Their gestation period lasts 10 to 11 months, with an interbirth interval of one year. They typically give birth to a single offspring, although twins are possible. Age at sexual maturity is 18 months for males, and three years for females. The maximum known lifespan is 25 years in the wild.

Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Mammalia
Order:Artiodactyla
Family:Bovidae
Subfamily:Bovinae
Tribe:Bovini
Genus:Bubalus
Species:B. arnee

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